Grid integration: Central element of electromobility and sector integration
- The successful integration of electromobility into the grid is a central element of sector integration.
- The current report of WG5 Linking the transport and energy networks – sector integration provides a definition of grid integration that is acceptable to all stakeholders to build common ground in the market.
- Concept of grid compatibility: Compliance with the contractual obligations entered into with the grid operator
- Concept of grid usability: Grid operator influences customer’s load behaviour
More electric vehicles and hence more charging operations are having an increasing impact on the power grid. One of the risks facing network operators are the new and unpredictable loads caused by the large number of simultaneous charging operations taking place primarily in the evenings. Therefore, a successful integration of these loads into the grid represents a key element of the future take-up of electromobility.
There are three parts to grid integration: The focus is on each individual local network that feeds charging stations, whether it is a quick charge hub for cars, a charging station for a public transport fleet or a private wallbox. Moreover, the network operator needs to be aware of the installed charge point which needs to be connected properly. Thirdly, the interaction between the grid and the connected load at the customer end “behind the grid connection point” is coordinated in a grid-compatible way and/or by the grid operator (in a usable way).
In terms of grid compatibility, load or charge management are provided for at the customer end even today – especially in the commercial sector –, in order for the customer to comply with the contractual commitments entered into with the grid operator. In this case, the grid operator does not control the customer’s system, which means the operator has no impact on the current output.
Today, grid usability is subject to a voluntary agreement between grid operator and customer on the basis of §14a German Energy Act (EnWG). Based on load monitoring, the grid operator influences the customer’s load behaviour through time or load slots, ad-hoc control signals and financial incentives. This means that the customer’s system implements the appropriate information provided by the grid operator. The financial incentives granted by the grid operator are passed on to the customer by means of reduced user fees via the supplier/aggregator.
Grid compatibility and grid usability can complement one another. Grid usability can be in place as part of grid compatibility.
A successful grid integration also forms the basis for the use of market-oriented load management to achieve price optimisation as well as for system-oriented load management of electric vehicles to provide flexibilities, e.g. for an optimised integration of renewable energies and system stability (balancing energy).
The report is available to download on www.plattform-zukunft-mobilitaet.de/berichte/ (in German).
About NPM – National Platform Future of Mobility
The National Platform Future of Mobility brings together experts in the fields of politics, the private sector, associations, research institutes and NGOs to develop visions for sustainable, environment- and climate-friendly, affordable and competitive mobility in Germany. Presided by Prof. Dr. Henning Kagermann, six working groups develop intermodal guidance to politicians, businesses and society in a technologically neutral way.
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